New Evidence Suggests Interbreeding Between Humans and Neanderthals

This picture shows three bones (Vi33.16, Vi33.25, Vi33.26) from Vindija cave, Croatia. Most of the Neandertal genome sequence was retrieved from these bones./ Image courtesy of Max-Planck-Institute EVA

A new study of the Neanderthal genome, published online today in the journal Science, presents strong evidence that humans and Neanderthals interbred.

There’s been a lot of debate about this subject in scientific circles (see this Spittoon post and the links within it) over the last few years.  Even some of the researchers involved in the current study previously said they thought human-Neanderthal couplings were unlikely.

ScienceNews and Ars Technica’s Nobel Intent both have good overviews of the new study and what it means.  Ars Technica’s John Timmer gives a great summary of why scientists now think that rather than replace Neanderthals, our human ancestors instead assimilated them:

At the same time, the genome sequence does provide evidence that humans and Neanderthals have interbred. This became apparent when the Neanderthal genome was paired against human genomes from different parts of the globe. The Neanderthal DNA consistently matched European and Asian samples better than it did African; the difference was small, but consistent. It suggested that the Neanderthals, which were restricted to Europe and Asia at the time modern humans originated in Africa, had interbred with humans once they began migrating out of Africa.

Because African human populations are older, they tend to have more divergent genomes. But the human-Neanderthal split is older still, so the authors figured that any areas of the genome where variation was larger in populations outside of Africa may have entered the human genome through interbreeding. If they did arise through interbreeding, then the non-African segments should match Neanderthals. Researchers found at least 10 regions that fit these predictions.

Although they can’t rule out the possibility that modern humans had already started diverging from Neanderthals before leaving Africa, the research team favors the idea of interbreeding in the Mid-East as the first modern humans left Africa. This would ensure that both the Asian and European populations picked up some Neanderthal DNA.

Be sure to check out the Science Magazine Neanderthal Genome Special Feature (free).


  • Mark

    Thanks for keeping up with the news and posting this!

  • David Lonard

    I went through the Science paper on the Neanderthal genome and their supplemental data sets. This data includes candidate regions of the genome found in non-African people that may be inherited from Neanderthals. I placed these regions in the HGDP selection browser run by the Jonathan Pritchard lab on the web. I selected all the SNP alleles in these candidate regions that are represented in non-Africans but present at very low frequencies in Africans (see below) and are derived alleles with respect to the Chimpanzee genome. Then I went through my 23andMe data to see how many of the non-African alleles my wife, daughter and I have to look for our Neanderthal heritage, and indeed, we have many of these “out of Africa” derived alleles.

    Any thoughts on this data? I am in the process of trying to evaluate the paper’s data and the possible power that these SNPs have to reveal Neanderthal genetic heritage.

    DML = me-Caucasian 7 Neanderthal Alleles total
    RBL = wife-Asian 6 Neanderthal Alleles total
    EDL = My daughter from previous marriage 6 Neanderthal Alleles total

    DA = Derived Allele – not shared with chimpanzees
    AA = Ancestral Allele – shared with chimpanzees
    OOA = “Out of Africa” allele, not shared with Africans and are in the Neanderthal candidate regions – these are the important alleles to consider

    DML RBL EDL DA AA OOA
    rs10800485 CC CT CT C T C
    rs6670818 AG AA AG G A G

    rs10915846 AG GG AG A G A
    rs16845098 TT CT TT C T C
    rs17503834 TT TT TT C T C

    rs4692788 CC CC CC T C T
    rs963660 CT CT CT T C T
    rs17628931 TT TT TT C T C

    rs2753977 TT CT TT C T C
    rs12216299 TT TT TT G T G
    rs17254301 CC CC CC T C T
    rs10484939 TT TT TT C T C
    rs17226291 T C T
    rs11792454 CC CC CC T C T
    rs17324630 TT TT TT C T C
    rs17324756 TT TT TT C T C
    rs10971319 GG GG GG A G A
    rs1556249 CC CC CC T C T
    rs2297216 AG GG GG A G A
    rs10971346 GG GG GG T G T
    rs1330692 TT CC TT C T C
    rs16918958 CC CC CC A C A
    rs16917040 TT TT TT C T C

    rs12416000 GG GG AG A G A
    rs2290349 AA AA AA G A G
    rs17133762 CC CC CC A C A
    rs11252810 CC CC CC T C T

    rs11815066 AG GG AG A G A

    rs7100599 GG GG GG A G A
    rs12571093 GG GG GG A G A
    rs17231602 GG GG GG A G A

    rs10852939 CC CC CT T C T
    rs16965666 TT GG TT G T G
    rs4794826 CC CC CC T C T

    rs9609421 AA AA AA G A G
    rs17745316 GG GG GG A G A

    rs7536180 AC AC AC A C A
    rs10494778 AA AA AA G A G

    rs11750694 CC AC CC A C A
    rs17430552 TT TT nc C T C

    rs332951 CC CC CC T C T
    rs16870040 AA GG AA G A G

  • Jackson Montgomery-Devoni

    I just chekced my results at the SNPs mentioned above the other day and I also have 7 ”Neanderthal” alleles. I am wondering if these really are Neanderthal in origin? Would these results be confirmation of some Neanderthal ancestry?

  • Jeff

    Thanks David,

    I sat down today to align the snps from the paper and thankfully checked the web first and it was done.

    Of my 11 putative Neanderthal snps from your list, 6 spanned 2.5 Mb on ch9. This region is a candidate region in the Science paper and includes an intergenic region into the DNAJ gene listed in Table 2.

    I’m hoping to dig into the data more this summer…but with your help I’m pretty sure I can brag about my Neanderthal heritage.

    Jeff

  • Jeff

    Scratch the 2.5 Mb…I must of been dreaming of finding an inversion. The span is a much more reasonable 15 Kb. Still, pretty suggestive.

    Jeff

  • David Lonard

    The UCSC Genome Browser now includes an overlay of all the putative Neanderthal regions/snps. All the SNPs that I listed above in my first post are in these candidate regions and are found in the Neanderthal short sequence reads. So this set of SNPs are the ones to use.

    I went through the HapMap Phase 3 data from their Genome web browswer and I can see distinct population structure in the distribution of these SNPs in different parts of the world outside of Africa. The total frequency at which these Neanderthal SNPs are about equal in the European, Indian, Chinese and Japanese populations. However, the patterns of Neanderthal allele distribution are distinct between Asian and European populations.

    Maybe this represents distinct encounters between Asian and European populations with Neanderthals. Alternatively, perhaps the distinct patterns of Neanderthal allele inheritance reflect bottlenecking/genetic drift from a common interaction in the near East.

  • Jackson Montgomery-Devoni

    What is the average score for the number of ”Neanderthal” SNPs amongst non-Africans? What do Europeans score on average specifically?

    Also which ”Neadnderthal” SNPs are the ones that are common among Asians and then Europeans?

  • David Lonard

    Jackson,

    Go to this site:

    http://hgdp.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/gbrowse/HGDP/

    Search for the SNPs in the list in my first post. After this you will see a region of the genome centered on the SNP you searched for. If you click on the SNPs that are plotted onto the genome read, another window will open that plots the allele frequencies for each allele in all the population groups represented in the HGDP dataset.

    Allele frequency for the ‘out of Africa’ alleles varies a lot for each individual SNP. This exercise will also show the SNPs that are common between Asians and Europeans. Overall, none of these SNPs are ‘private alleles’ exclusive to only one group and not another from what I can see.

  • Jackson Montgomery-Devoni

    Thanks for the link David. This is quite interesting. SO it does seem that the SNPs you have selected there in your first post are the one’s to use.

    So if some one has an OOA allele on any of the SNPs listed above that may be an allele inherited from a Neanderthal ancestor correct?

  • Jackson Montgomery-Devoni

    Check this out guys. Apparently this East African fellow also has some of the OOA SNPs. Honestly I did expect is any of the OOA SNPs would be found in Africa they would be found in East Africa as that area has had substantial gene flow into it from the Middle East. These are his words. He is from Eritrea.

    ”I have 3 of the OOA derived genotypes from the list.. all of the ones ironically are some of the most rarest on the list..

    heterozygous for 2 of them and homozygous for 1 of them

    heterozygous for:
    rs1330692: present at low levels in europeans and asians.. non existent in sub saharan africans
    rs17745316: present at low levels in europeans only (around 20%) non existent in sub saharans

    homozygous for:
    rs10915846: present at extremely low frequencies in europeans”

  • owodom

    I just checked for the “OOA”, possible Neanderthal alleles that David listed, and I have 6. Of these, I am homozygous for 1 and heterozygous for 5. Interestingly, the one for which I am homozygous is rs10915846, the same one for which the Eritrean fellow mentioned above by Jackson is homozygous, and the one supposedly present in “extremely low frequencies in Europeans.” Yet, according to 23andMe’s Ancestry Painting, I am 100% European.

    The 5 “OOA” alleles for which I am heterozygous are rs2290349, rs17133762, rs10852939, rs17745316, and rs332951.

  • Fannie Linder

    Although we are admixed (African, Europe and Asian) and are majority African (mother is Senegalese and, between various testings ,we sisters average 72-75 % African), I and my sister have 3 of the OOA (Out of Africa) alleles: rs10800485, rs6670818, rs11750694). We are both heterozygous for each allele. We are highly admixed on our X chromosomes (majority European on 1X and admixed majority African on the 2X).

  • Fannie Linder

    I have just completed my brother’s and he has 4 of the OOA alleles,
    rs10800485, rs6670818, rs10915846 and rs2297216 .

    He is heterozygous for all 4.

  • Didier

    Most of the time I have a heterozygous state , so, of course, I have 1 allele of each. Would you say I score 50% Neanderthal and 50% African ? I am 100% french !

  • Didier

    OK, Now I did it seriously and I compared my data to my mother’s data. I was looking at the Chr 9 SNPs where it seems that my mother has a stretch of “non african” SNPs in an intergenic region and this stretch was passed to me . The SNPs are :
    rs11792454 , rs17324630 , rs17324756 , rs10971319 , rs1556249 , rs10971346 and rs1330692 . We also both have rs10915846 as “non african” ; this SNP is in the ENAH gene . Apart from these the non african SNPs are rare. My mother has an additional non african SNP in ENAH (rs16845098) and I have one in CASC3 gene.
    My understanding (taking into account the posts above) is that the stretch on Chr 9 may be rather common. I am curious to know whether ENAH is also rather frequent and I suspect that the other SNPs are much less frequent.

  • Jackson Montgomery-Devoni

    I have noticed from the results of numerous people at these SNPs so far that most non-Africans are scoring 6 or more on these. Quite a few have 6 or 7 OOA SNPs and a few have more.

  • David Lonard

    Jackson,

    Yes, any of the alleles in my list are Neanderthal alleles (provided that the sequencing is accurate and not due to contamination by modern human DNA).

    Your remark about an Eritrean possessing some of the rarer SNPs in this list is very interesting. The rarity of alleles possessed by this person (not withstanding owodum’s data) might again point to a distinct population structure for Neanderthal alleles for Eritreans from that of Europeans and Asians. Since the Horn of Africa/Near East is where the first contact took place with Neanderthals according to the the publication in Science, it will be important to genotype individuals from this part of the world in particular. It would be interesting to see if particular populations in this part of the world possess Neanderthal allele patterns that correspond to distinct population groups elsewhere in the world. Possibly, this might be able to distinguish between distinct human/Neanderthal encounters or to genetic drift as reasons for distinct Neanderthal allele distribution in different world populations.

    Fannie,
    When I went through HapMap Phase III data, I noticed that allele frequencies for these Neanderthal alleles exist at a higher frequency than for sub-Saharan Africans which would be consistent with your results.

  • David Lonard

    Fannie,

    Sorry, my last sentence was unclear. I meant to say that these alleles exist at a higher frequency in African Americans than in sub-Saharan populations (such as Yoruba) where they are very rare/non-existent.

  • Jackson Montgomery-Devoni

    Thank you for the reply David. This is starting to get very interesting indeed. I find it funny as well on some other forums and blogs that some people have a hard time accepting possible Neanderthal admixture. I know that the results could be due to say ancient population substructure within Africa but I think the Neadnerthal admixture theory is just as likely.

    I agree that it would be nice to see the results of more people from the Near East and East Africa for these SNPs. We may get some interesting patterns there. I think that the OOA SNPs found it East Africans probably come from a Near Eastern source. That would make sense I think. As you mention also African Americans who have some European admixture (which most do) should have more OOA alleles than people directly from West and South Africa. This also makes sense.

  • owodom

    I just checked the frequency of rs10915846 (the SNP for which the Eritrean fellow and myself are homozygous derived) at the Pritchard lab link that David gave earlier. It turns out that the OOA allele for this SNP is not so rare in Europe after all. In fact, it seems to be one of the most frequently occurring of the OOA alleles, and this is true in all regions, except of course Africa where it is only shown (at very low frequency) in the region near the Horn.

  • David Lonard

    Jackson,

    Yes, I too have noticed that some people have issues with the Neanderthal admixture situation. I think that when more thorough sampling is done on populations in the near East and in Eastern Africa are done, we will be able to settle the African population substructure/Neanderthal admixture debate for good. If these OOA alleles are present at higher frequencies in near East population groups, then this would suggest that their presence in East Africans is due to limited backflow of Neanderthal alleles into Africa and not due to ancient substructure in Africa.

  • Fannie Linder

    David, thanks for the clarification. I agree with you.

  • Jackson Montgomery-Devoni

    David,

    Yes I think that this will probably be what we are going to see. I really do think that the OOA alleles in East Africans probably have a Near Eastern source as there certainly was quite a bit of gene flow between the two regions. East Africans have been shown by other studies to have some Eurasian ancestry in their genomes.

  • Jackson Montgomery-Devoni

    I find it interesting to look and see which OOA SNPs you are homozygous and heterozygous for as well. Here are mine.

    OOA Homozygous SNPs:
    rs10800485
    rs6670818
    rs2290349
    rs17133762

    OOA Heterozygous SNPs:
    rs4692788
    rs1330692
    rs4794826

  • pconroy

    I am heterozygous for 11 SNP’s and my daughter is heterozygous for 8 and homozygous for 1.

  • lbwmson

    I have 12 matches: 11 homozygous and 1 heterozygous.

  • Fannie Linder

    I decided to look up the supposed Neandertal SNPs above in the HapMap database. They certainly are not exclusive of Africa. They, in fact, show European/African matches on all ancestral Alleles of the 12 SNPs. With that majority result, I felt no need to go further. The Asian populations also match the ancestral Alleles with the exception of the first SNP. I would appreciate knowing of any incorrectly noted.

    Here are the results for the first 12 SNPs. They show the percentages of each SNP in the various populations, including Africa:

    NEANDERTHAL SNPS & ALLELES (SUPPOSEDLY)

    rs10800485
    C/T Alleles
    T Ancestral

    EUR CEU
    C/.347
    T/.653

    ASIAN HAN
    C/.567
    T/.433

    ASIAN JPN
    C/.711
    T/.289

    SSA YRI
    C/.083
    T/.917

    rs6670818
    A/G Alleles
    A Ancestral

    EUR CEU
    A/.650
    G/.350

    ASIAN HAN
    A/.544
    G/.456

    ASIAN JPN
    A/.500
    G/.500

    SSA YRI
    A/.983
    G/.017

    10915846
    A/G Alleles
    G Ancestral

    EUR CEU
    A/.331
    G/.669

    ASIAN HAN
    A/.178
    G/.822

    ASIAN JPN
    A./205
    G/.795

    SSA YRI
    A/.000
    G/1.000

    rs16845098
    C/T Alleles
    T Ancestral

    EUR CEU
    C/.308
    T/.692

    ASIAN HAN
    C/.411
    T/.589

    ASIAN JPN
    C/.367
    T/.633

    SSA YRI
    C/.017
    T/.983

    rs17503834
    C/T Alleles
    T Ancestral

    EUR CEU
    C/.133
    T/.867

    ASIAN HAN
    C/.011
    T/.989

    ASIAN JPN
    C/.022
    T/.978

    SSA YRI
    C/.008
    T/.992

    rs4692788
    C/T Alleles
    C Ancestral

    EUR CEU
    C/.924
    T/.076

    ASIAN HAN
    C/.989
    T/.011

    ASIAN JPN
    C/.1.000
    T/.000

    SSA YRI
    C/1.000
    T/.000

    rs963660
    *A/G Alleles [C/T on the post above]
    G Ancestral

    EUR CEU
    A/.100
    G/.900

    ASIAN HAN
    A/.478
    G/.522

    ASIAN JPN
    A/.422
    G/.578

    SSA YRI
    A/.042
    G/.958

    rs17628931
    C/T Alleles
    T Ancestral

    EUR CEU
    C/.042
    T/.958

    ASIAN HAN
    C/.000
    T1.000

    ASIAN JPN
    C/.000
    T/1.000

    SSA YRI
    C/.000
    T/1.000

    rs27533977
    *A/G Alleles [C/T on the post above]
    A Ancestral

    EUR CEU
    A/.908
    G/.092

    ASIAN HAN
    A/.711
    G/.289

    ASIAN JPN
    A/.800
    G/.200

    SSA YRI
    A/.992
    G/.008

    rs12216299
    G/T Alleles
    T Ancestral

    EUR CEU
    G/.056
    T/.944

    ASIAN HAN
    G/.000
    T/1.000

    ASIAN JPN
    G/.000
    T/1.000

    SSA YRI
    G/.000
    T/1.000

    rs17254301
    C/T Alleles
    C Ancestral

    EUR CEU
    C/.808
    T/.192

    ASIAN HAN
    C/.867
    T/.133

    ASIAN JPN
    C/.922
    T/.078

    SSA YRI
    C/.1.000
    T/.000

    rs10484939
    *A/G Alleles [C/T on the post above]
    A Ancestral

    EUR CEU
    A/.892
    G/.108

    ASIAN HAN
    A/.929
    G/.071

    ASIAN JPN
    A/.964
    G/.036

    SSA YRI
    A/.1.000
    G/.000

    22ruth

  • David Lonard

    Fannie,

    The derived, out of Africa alleles are the important alleles to consider for Neanderthal admixture, not the ancestral alleles. All modern humans will possess the ancestral alleles for all of these loci at moderate to high levels. You will notice that in HapMap and in the HGDP data sets that Africans will exclusively/almost exclusively possess the ancestral alleles for all these SNPs.

    Neanderthals generated their own unique mutations/derived alleles separate from humans and chimps which did not experience a mutation event at the same locus. These new alleles were then captured by modern humans when they left Africa, interbred with Neanderthals then radiated out to the rest of the world.

    Again, its the OOA alleles, the last allele on the list that are the ones to look at.

    David

  • Fannie Linder

    David, note that my intent is to show BOTH alleles for each SNP – the ancestral and the 00A which are your last TWO and which populations have them. To me, one gets a clearer picture with both together.

    Fannie

  • Fannie Linder

    I do note, David, in rereading my former post that i did, indeed, draw an inordinate attention to the ancestral even though that was not the intent of my post. Sorry about that.
    Fannie

  • Jackson Montgomery-Devoni

    So what does this mean then? As David mentioned it is the OOA alleles that are important here for possible Neanderthal admixture.

  • Dave Norris

    Thanks for the list David. (Should we be calling you Dr. Lonard?)

    My ancestors are Saxon-Irish on one side and from Doggerland on the other.

    This means I am “100% European” and I only have five matches from your list.

    Here they are in case anyone is collecting data:

    RS4692788 Chromosome 4 C/T, T is OOA
    RS2297216 Chromosome 9 A/G, A is OOA
    RS1241600 Chromosome 10 A/G, A is OOA
    RS1085239 Chromosome 17 C/T, T is OOA
    RS11750684 Chromosome 5 A/C, A is OOA

  • Clara

    David How did you figure out the Neanderthal connection on the snps
    I’m very new at this and I checked the same snp’s and now I can’t figure out how to interpretate them.

    Clara

  • David Lonard

    Clara,

    The UCSC gene browser identifies all these SNPs now, so marking them as Neanderhtal SNPs is pretty straightforward. Interpretation of their significance is another matter. I would read the Science paper that I cited above to understand their significance. Essentially, if you own any of the OOA SNPs listed above, then you possess some, probably small amount of Neanderthal genetic material. The phenotypic impact of any of these small handful of SNPs is undefined at the present time.

    David

  • Leafdrop

    Hi;

    I’m confused. I hope someone can help me think this through.

    How is it that we can isolate Neanderthal DNA that is older than 10,000 years but 23andMe says they can’t detect Native American DNA that is older than 5 generations?

    Also I’ve noticed that 23andMe doesn’t report my two Jewish grandparents from the 1500s. (Same problem, I guess, unless perhaps there were some non-parental events.)

  • Joanna Mountain

    @Leafdrop,

    Great question! (regarding detecting Neanderthal DNA vs DNA from Native American ancestors)

    Note that 23andMe is not (yet!) telling customers which parts of their genomes trace back to Neanderthals. There are still many details to be worked out there. And 23andMe can tell some customers about their Native American ancestry over 5 generations ago. However, as with Neanderthal ancestry, there is no guarantee that even if someone does have Native American ancestry 6 generations ago, that the evidence is detectable in the DNA. That said, there are some reasons why it might be easier to tell someone about their Neanderthal ancestry than their Native American ancestry.

    * Neanderthal DNA is very different from the DNA that traces back to our “anatomically modern” ancestors of 40,000 years ago, and therefore is somewhat easier to detect.
    * Genome-wide sequence or SNP data exist for very few, if any, Native Americans who trace all of their ancestry indigenously to North America. Maybe one day someone will sequence the full genomes from skeletal remains of Native Americans, but, currently, no such data are publicly available.
    * It is possible, given the limited current data, that the earliest modern humans in Europe and Asia had quite a bit of DNA from Neanderthals. The Neanderthal mtDNA did not persist until the present day, but other segments of Neanderthal DNA apparently did, and may be relatively common in Europeans and Asians. So each generation, “Neanderthal DNA” can be lost, but also gained since it can come from both parents. In contrast, in the United States at least, DNA that traces back to Native Americans is very rare, because of the history of Native Americans in the US, and so the tendency is for DNA evidence of Native American ancestry to be lost each generation.
    * The putative Neanderthal segments that have been identified in living people are very short. In the future 23andMe may be able to detect short segments that indicate Native American ancestry, so that deeper Native American ancestry is detectable.

    Regarding your second question about evidence from Jewish grandparents:

    I assume that, if they lived in the 1500s, you are referring to great, great, etc grandparents. In that case, since they are over 10 generations back, you may or may not retain detectable DNA from those ancestors. Either you do not have segments from those ancestors, or the segments you have are too small to be readily detectable using current methods. Also, if you are referring to the “Ancestry Finder” feature, it may be that the evidence of sharing with Jewish relatives is not yet available, and will show up in the future as the database grows (This is most certainly the case if you are actually referring to grandparents two generations back).

  • Jackson Montgomery-Devoni

    Hi Joanna,

    Thanks for the explanation above it clarifies some things I think.

    Now do you think that the SNPs that David Lonard identified above as possibly being Neanderthal in origin really are?

    Thanks,
    Jackson

  • http://yahoo.com Jack O’Sullivan

    To the non-geneticist many of the comments are Greek. What I’m wondering is how quickly genetic dilution has occured. A data table showing samples every 1000 years for specific regions might be interesting.

  • http://blog.openhelix.com wclathe

    I’m heterozygous for 4 OOA alleles only. My ancestry is predominately Celtic-Scandinavian (7 of 8 ggparents, maternal/paternal haplogroups) though I do have 1 of 8 g-grandparents who is Native American.

  • Eric Halgren

    I am heterozygous for the OOA alleles at 7 of the 42 SNPs, no read at one. So that makes 7/82 or 8.5%. Seems kinda low if these are the SNPs specfically chosen to reflect our Neandertal heritage.
    I am 3/4 Swede and 1/4 mixed-English.

  • Amanda R

    Hi Everyone,

    I ran a Promethease report through Snpedia and I have all the SNP’s listed by David. I also went into my 23 & Me report and verified their location. They are all homozygote except one (rs12571093 heterozygote). They are located in Chromosome 1, 4, 6, 9, 10, 17, 22, and 5.

    Because I have them all I keep thinking I am doing something wrong. I gone over this three times! How could I have them all?

    Thanks,
    Amanda

  • Amanda R

    Another interesting note… My husband has also participated with 23 & Me and is listed in my account. So, when I run a SNP his name shows up under mine. He does not have any of these SNP’s. He is 100% Jew (I’m not), don’t know if that makes a difference but it seems like it would. I’m running his Promethease report now.

  • Amanda R

    Please disregard my last post. My husband does have SNP’s for Neanderthal. I clearly do not understand the difference between the ancesteral and the OOA component here. I feel like I am in first grade again even though I’m a nurse and have studied genetics. This is so fascinating, I really want to understand it. Thanks for your help!

  • Bernal

    Dear David

    Are there known specific Neanderthal X-chromosome SNPs?
    So that can be explored if there is still any detectable difference in the frequency of Neanderthal segments between this chromosome and the rest of genome.

  • Michael

    Has anyone here tried the interpretome neanderthal tool? It says that “This analysis is adapted from David Lonard’s analysis on the Spittoon Blog.” It looks at 86 possible alleles. I have 17 of them! Which I think is quite high. My 23andme analysis says I am 2.8% neanderthal. I’m wondering which is closer to correct.

    • ScottH

      Can’t say I’m unbiased but I would bet that 23andMe’s tool is more accurate. Check out the scientific paper that explains the way the estimate is made.

  • http://clarkson9@facebook.com Stacy Clarkson

    A question what are the ranges of Neanderthal DNA in whites/Europeans,Asians,and Indians of the sub continent,as well as native Americans before their contact with modern Europeans?????

    • ScottH

      Although we have ranges for Neanderthal DNA percentages for people of European ancestry, we do not have a breakdown for Asians and Indians. I’m not aware of any studies of Neanderthal percentages of Native Americans before modern European contacts.

  • Carlos Gonzalez

    Would these Neanderthal DNA be greater depending on the ancestry’s origin?. 70% of my DNA list Europe primarily Spain, I have 22 Neanderthal SNPS

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