PLoS One by anthropologists from the UniversitÃ© de la MÃ©diterranÃ©e in France, using a method that is both unique and comprehensive. This study is of interest not only because it attempts to understand Neanderthal diversity, but also because it utilized data from a various sources. First, the researchers collected data from the mitochondrial DNA sequences of 12 separate Neanderthal skeletons. These skeletons ranged in age from 29,000 to 100,000 years and were uncovered in various parts of the Neanderthal homeland, from Siberia to Spain. The researchers then took physical measurements of the skeletons themselves. Finally, they developed and ran complex computer simulations based on the genetic and skeletal data, in an attempt to discover the most likely scenario for how Neanderthals evolved and spread across much of Eurasia.The authors concluded that the most likely scenario for how the Neanderthals populated Europe and Western Asia involves three Neanderthal sub-groups: one centered in Western Europe, another in Southern Europe, and the final group in the Levant/Western Asia. They propose that the Neanderthals within each of these sub-groups were more genetically – and perhaps physically – similar to each other than they were to members of another sub-group. This is contrary to the idea that the Neanderthals were a single, uniform population.This result begs the question of cultural distinctions between the sub-groups. After all, if they were genetically and physically different from one another, it is entirely plausible that cultural differences, such as tool technologies, between the sub-groups also existed. The authors hope to understand cultural differences between Neanderthal sub-groups in the same way as they’ve understood genetic and physical differences. And, as more fossils are found and more DNA extracted, we will hopefully develop – with even more confidence – a clear picture on the origins and movements of Neanderthals.