DNA Tests Uncover African Ancestry and Surprising Connection to Thomas Jefferson

As the series Finding Your Roots with Henry Louis Gates, Jr. begins its 10-week run on PBS, The Spittoon will feature posts from 23andMe’s Ancestry Ambassadors featuring their own stories about using DNA to dig into ancestry.By CeCe MooreYou never know what a DNA test might reveal!A few months ago, spurred on by my interest in genetic genealogy, my sister Erin decided to order a DNA test from 23andMe for my brother-in-law John Huffer. Since John has never known his father, we didn’t really know what his results would show. His mother’s family has a strong oral tradition of Native American ancestry, so we expected some mixed ancestry. However, what we found was completely unexpected.
Our Ancestry Ambassadors

Ancestry Ambassadors from left to right, top row, Dr. Ann Turner, Larry Vick, Shannon Christmas, bottom row, Dr. Tim Janzen, Andrea Badger and CeCe Moore.

As the series Finding Your Roots with Henry Louis Gates, Jr. begins its 10-week run on PBS, The Spittoon will feature posts from 23andMe’s Ancestry Ambassadors.  They’ll be writing about how they’ve used DNA to dig into the roots of their own families’ histories.With our Ancestry Ambassadors we’ve been lucky to bring together a group of people who are not just enthusiastic about ancestry, but who also have garnered a reputation in the 23andMe’s community of users as trusted sources and helpful guides.We created our Ancestry Ambassadors group to help us build the best service possible. They’ve already helped, by spending a day and talking to our scientists, engineers and our CEO Anne Wojcicki offering ideas for improving 23andMe’s ancestry tools.Members of the group – CeCe Moore, Dr. Tim Janzen, Dr. Ann Turner, Andrea Badger, Larry Vick and Shannon Christmas – also got a chance to learn a little bit more about 23andMe’s research mission.Each member of the group had ideas about improving the overall experience of using 23andMe, including more voices from users. Opening up the blog to guests like our Ancestry Ambassadors is one way to do that.
His Ancestry Painting, in the image below, revealed that about five percent of his ancestry is African.   23andMe’s Ancestry Painting examines the 22 pairs of chromosomes one segment at a time and determines for each stretch whether it was most likely inherited from ancestors in Africa, Europe or Asia and “paints” the segments based on that different ancestry.I had never investigated John’s family tree before, but my curiosity was piqued. Fairly quickly it became obvious that his was no run-of-the-mill genealogy. John’s mother’s family traces straight back to Madison Hemings. That name may be familiar to you. Madison Hemings was the son of Sally Hemings, a mixed race slave of Thomas Jefferson, our third president and author of the Declaration of Independence. My genealogy research clearly showed that Thomas Jefferson and Sally are John’s fourth great-grandparents!*John has always especially admired Thomas Jefferson above all other historical figures and felt a special affinity to Monticello when he first visited there ten years ago, although he had absolutely no idea of his familial connection. When I first relayed my findings to John and my sister, they were, understandably, shocked. Once they started browsing the Internet in search of more information, they came across a very familiar photo on one of the websites about Monticello. An original of this very photo had hung in John’s house growing up. Further investigation shows that his mother had at least a vague knowledge of her family’s relationship to Thomas Jefferson and/or Sally Hemings, but did not pass it on to her children.There have been a number of interesting “coincidences” involving the Huffers and Monticello that make one ponder on genetic memory. When John and my sister first visited Monticello on an anniversary trip ten years ago, they loved it so much that they decided to go back the very next year with their daughter Courtney.

John Huffer’s Ancestry Painting. The green segments represent his African ancestry.

When Courtney entered the dining room of Monticello, she promptly passed out. Although her reaction could be attributed to the hot, humid day, it bears notice that this was the one and only time that Courtney has ever fainted. This was long before the family knew about their personal connection to the place or the families that lived there.   Courtney says that although she felt “overwhelmed” at Monticello, she also “felt at home”. Recently, the family visited Monticello for the first time since discovering their relationship to it and its previous inhabitants. John and Courtney both said that Monticello “seems like a happy place” and gave them a sense of belonging.Since John had never had any relationship with his father’s family and had very little contact with his mother’s side, he says it was as if they “had no history”. Erin relates, “It’s been fun for John to finally have a legacy of some sort, not to mention one as interesting as this,” and goes on to say that this discovery has finally given John and his siblings “a sense of who they are and where they came from.” John’s young nephew Joshua tells me that learning about his illustrious roots has inspired him to strive to make more of his life and given him the confidence that he can indeed achieve his ambitious goals.

John Huffer at Monticello

The discovery has been meaningful for John, once a fatherless little boy, who can now take comfort and pride in the knowledge that he is directly descended from one of the Founding Fathers of our country! During his most recent visit to Monticello, he couldn’t help but wonder if his deep love of Paris is simply a coincidence or caused by the same unknown spark that made Thomas Jefferson fall in love with it so long ago. Or, if his fascination with the art of brewing beer could have come from his forebearers, whom he learned on his visit were expert brewers at Monticello. It is wonderful for John and his family to finally have these types of questions about their ancestry to ponder; questions that most of us take for granted.DNA testing has come full circle for genetic genealogy with John’s story. It is fitting that one of the very first public uses of DNA for genealogical purposes was the Y-DNA test in 1998 that originally addressed the controversy surrounding the paternity of Sally Hemings’ children. Today, more than a decade later, the simple decision to test with 23andMe is what led John to make this illuminating discovery about his roots.

John and Courtney Huffer, descendants of Thomas Jefferson at Monticello

[*Although some Jefferson researchers had disputed the validity of the claims that Sally’s children were fathered by Thomas Jefferson, most of these doubts were put to rest after a 1998 Y-DNA test on Sally’s son Eston’s direct male line descendants proved that they carry the Y chromosome of Thomas Jefferson’s male line. Although Madison has no living direct line male descendants who could have their Y-Chromosome DNA tested to further support this claim, it is now widely accepted that Thomas Jefferson fathered all of Sally’s children. This is supported by oral histories of Sally’s descendants and analysis of the couple’s relationship and time spent together. Annette Gordon-Reed provides a detailed look at this evidence in her exhaustive study and Pulitzer Prize winning book, “The Hemingses of Monticello”. The official Jefferson Monticello website also addresses this issue. John’s discovery has sparked my interest in this fascinating subject. As a result, I am spearheading an autosomal DNA project on the descendants of Sally Hemings. Although it is now generally recognized that Thomas Jefferson fathered all of Sally Hemings’ children, it has been impossible to determine with certainty. The introduction of autosomal DNA testing has changed this. Through autosomal DNA testing of specific individuals, I hope to be able to demonstrate that the descendants of Sally Hemings share blocks of DNA with Jefferson’s “legitimate” descendants. If it is not possible to procure DNA from any of these known descendants, I will seek DNA from descendants of individuals one step further back in Thomas Jefferson’s pedigree in an attempt to show that Sally’s descendants possess DNA from Jefferson’s ancestral lines. Since autosomal DNA undergoes random recombination with each successive generation, it will be necessary to test the oldest living descendants of these lines. DNA is the perfect tool for this because it does not harbor any prejudice or predetermined notions. Anyone who fits these parameters should contact me at yourgeneticgenealogist@gmail.com.]23andMe provides genetic testing services for informational purposes; your results may or may not help you to search for or identify relatives or family members.

 CeCe Moore is a genetic genealogist specializing in the use of autosomal DNA for genealogy. She writes the popular blog  Your Genetic Genealogist and works as a television producer with StudioINTV.   CeCe is the Southern California Regional Coordinator for the International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) and a member of Mensa.  Her favorite genetic experiment is her seven-year old son, Nicolas.
  • David Lovell Oravez

    What an awesome story, CeCe! Thank you so much for sharing it with us. Joe, congratulations on such a phenomenal discovery! All the best to you all.


  • hi, very interesting. i’ve read most books about T.J. and Sally. What i find most interesting is that Sally was thomas’s wife Marther’s Sister by her father and an enslaved woman who herself was of european and african blood, so sally was only 3/4/ white and 1/4 black. it was said that Sally was very pretty and looked very much like Marther. to prove this connection would be very interisting.

  • Thanks, David!
    Tony, you raise a very interesting point because Thomas’ descendants through his wife Martha may share DNA with Sally’s descendants through the Wayles connection. Because of this, I hope to locate Wayles descendants not related to Jefferson to test for my study, in order to determine if any shared DNA can be identified as originating exclusively with the Wayles (or Eppes) Family. (Due to the convoluted nature of the Wayles/Eppes genealogy, this may pose a challenge.) I had also planned to identify descendants of Jefferson’s uncle and/or brothers to include in the study. This will be an essential step to isolate Jefferson DNA versus Wayles DNA. It may be of lesser historical significance if my study was able to find DNA evidence confirming that Sally was indeed Martha’s half-sister, but still extremely interesting and well worth exploring. This study will likely prove be a long-term, complex project. Thank you for your comment.

  • Ce Ce Moore:

    I have read the story of John and would like to add a few pieces of information. I assisted Dr E.A. Foster with the 1998 Jefferson-Hemings DNA Study and have some very sensitive inside information regarding this “agenda to find TJ guilty.”

    Dr Foster knew he was testing a KNOWN carrier of both Jefferson and Hemings DNA, and would not reveal this to Nature as I highly suggested. He also knew that the Eston Hemings family had long claimed “a Jefferson uncle or nephew” as their ancestor…..NOT Thomas. This translates to read Randolph Jefferson, much younger brother of TJ, and his sons.

    Dr Foster worked closely with Nature Journal to perfect a FALSE and misleading headline, “Jefferson fathers slave’s last child” and still withholding the information about TJ’s brother and sons. I have e-mails from both attesting to this. Finally in the Jan 7, 1999 issue of Nature Dr Foster admitted the existance of other Jefferson DNA to be considered.

    There is NO proof that John is related to Thomas Jefferson whatsoever. There is a source for Madison Hemings DNA in a grave in Leavenworth, Kansas, William, son of Madison. However, eight of his ancestral neices and nephews REFUSE to test this DNA and in my opinion if tested it would reveal a match with a Carr, not any Jefferson. It would also reveal that the often remark that Sally only had one father for her chuildren would be invalid. Dr. Foster’s original reason for the test was to prove or disprove a Carr-Hemings match, but he only tested one Hemings, John Weeks Jefferson, a descendant of Eston. The DNA study completely eleminated the long running Callender LIE that TJ fathered Tom Woodson………..NO DNA match.

    This is all a slvery issue with Monticello misinforming the public and even removing “MEMORIAL” from their title. Annette Gordon-Reed is also deeply involved in this deception in stating in her latest book that TJ fathered 7 of Sally’s children………..NO proof whatsoever.

    Two recent books, “The Jefferson-Hemings Controversy: Report of the Scholars Commission” and “The Jefferson Lies” will fully expose these deceptions. As for the claim that Martha Jefferson and Sally Hemings were half-sisters is a complete rumor, read “Anatomy of a Scandal” and other books on these web pages.

    For full details of this study go to http://www.tjheritage.org and http://www.jeffersondnastudy.com.

    Herb Barger
    Founder, Thomas Jefferson Heritage Society

  • Ce Ce:
    Your remark “(Due to the convoluted nature of the Wayles/Eppes genealogy, this may pose a challenge.)”

    You can refer to the book “Worsham & Washam Family History” by Larry Washam and the book “Ancestors and Descendants of Francis Epes I of Virginia for the family history and genealogy of both families which may help you in your research. The Worsham and Eppes families are tied together when William Worsham died in the 1600’s and his wife Elizabeth married 2nd Francis Eppes. For corrections to the Worsham book you can go to the Worsham website which has hundreds of pages of additions and minor corrections, mostly additions. The Eppes’s are my half cousins. The Wayles are in my family tree but I have not gone as far as to prove their line, so I cannot be of much help there. I respect Mr. Herb Barger for his time in correcting the record which seems to be never ending. Also, when reading a book or two on Thomas Jefferson you will probably come to the realization as I did that the assertions more than likely are not true, but myself I will always keep an open mind.

    Raleigh Worsham
    descendant of William and Elizabeth

  • Jim Stevens

    One book I read seemed to indicate that Sally Hemmings was actually the illegitmate daughter of Thomas Jefferson’s wife’s father which would have made Sally Hemmings the half sister of TJ’s wife. The book also mentioned that Sally Hemmings bore a very strong resemblance to TJ’s wife and the relationship with Sally begain after his wife passed away.

  • Betty M. Ashley

    I have heard the same story in regards to Sally Hemmings being a half sister to TJ’s wife, but the male children of Sally had TJ’s YDNA inherited from Thomas or his brother.

  • Ruby Lee Thigpen-Whitehurst


  • Kalin

    Excuse me while I vent. So, you discover that you descend from Thomas Jefferson through the bloodline of Sally Hemmings, the woman he sexually, emotionally and financially exploited over her entire lifetime and your takeaway is that Monticello is a “happy place”, that you “feel as though you belong”, and you’re happy that you descend from a “founding father”? It’s pathetic how all of the Sally Hemings descendants blithely gloss over HOW it is that they got to be Thomas Jefferson’s descendants, WHAT he did to Sally Hemings, HOW he treated her and HOW she lived and died in their effort to latch on to Jefferson’s coat tails. It’s as if any indignity Hemings was forced to endure was a worthy price to pay for their bragging rights as a Jefferson “descendant”. None of these descendants honor Sally Hemings. They have not set up a historical society in her honor or done anything to memorialize her life but clamor to enter the front gates of Monticello to honor an individual who denied any moral, legal or blood tie to them. These people are a disgrace.

    • mischling2nd

      Oh, stop it. You have no proof. Hemings was obviously treated far, far better than your average slave. Also, any slave woman with a brain in her head would realize the opportunities available to her through concubinage. Jefferson himself had to have some affection for Sally because of the length of the relationship. If he had been motivated purely by lust, he would have replaced Sally with a younger woman as soon as the bloom was off the rose.

      • Darrel Mcnair

        She was 14 years old. What type of person would defend pedophile behavior?

    • evonne97

      Lol, I can’t even take you seriously because you have absolutely no clue what kind of relationship they did or did not have. You just automatically assumed that because she was a slave she was raped and mistreated when theres really no way of knowing that for sure. And aside from being one of the many slaves who had children with their masters, what exactly did she do of note to deserve a historical society? Yeah she should be known but obviously she is if shes been discussed for the last few hundred years. Sorry but just being the mother of a presidents kids doesnt really warrant special attention. The only reason we know who she is today is because she was a slave who had those kids and that was considered a huge no no in those days and for a really long time after because of racism. Stop projecting what you think these people felt or what they went through because you actually don’t have a clue. And stop thinking you know what these descendants feel about having a slave for an ancestor because you don’t know that either. How about saving your anger for something you actually have all of the proven facts for.

  • Mary Benton Nicholas

    Hi CeCe, I know this note is late, but I just wanted to ask if you have made contact with any of the African American descendants of Monticello who attend the annual celebration in August of each year. My ex husband is a native of Rockbridge Co, VA and his paternal great aunt married into the Colbert family which descends from Sally Heming’s’ older sister Betty Brown. A couple of these cousins have attended regularly. It is believed that Betty Brown along with 5 siblings were fathered by John Wayles, Jefferson’s father-in-law. I don’t know enough about DNA testing to know if you would be able to sort out the genes passed from a father to a daughter and her descendants, but just wanted to ask. I really enjoyed this article because there are many people who have no idea who they really are. I love genealogy and found researching my ex husband’s Virginia family line to be a fantastic lesson in the true history of the USA.

  • Mary Hogrefe

    My DNA came back as a positive match to Jefferson/Heming.